At the Academy of Fine Arts in Arnhem, later ArtEZ, there was a jewellery design department that transformed into a metals and plastics department in the 1960s and later on into a 3D department. Central to the teachings of Gijs Bakker (1970 to 1987) was ‘fundamental design’, who also emphasised the personal vision of the designer. Graduated students included Ton Haas, Hans Ebbing, Hans Ansems, Herman Hermsen and Paul Schudel. They took production into their own hands with collective initiatives such as the Association for Designers (Vormgeversassociatie). Franck Ligtelijn succeeded Bakker as the head of the department, who was then succeeded by Schudel. During the 1980s, the focus of the 3D department moved towards craftsmanship and the emotional and associative aspects of design. This became also visible in the work of a group of students who presented themselves under the name of Oktober in 1988.
Other teachers were Joep Sterman, Franck Ligtelijn and Onno van Dokkum, graphic design and typography was taught by Jan Vermeulen, Alexander Verberne, Chris Brand, Karel Martens and Wigger Bierma. Consequently, Martens and Bierma taught at the Werkplaats Typografie (‘Typography Workshop’), a Master’s programme in graphic design.
The Dutch version of this biography is taken from the book Visies op vormgeving, het Nederlandse ontwerpen in teksten deel 2: 1940-2000 (2008) by Frederike Huygen. The following sources have been used for this biography:
– Lootsma, B. ‘Weltschmerz. De oktoberrevolutie in Arnhem’, Items 8 (1989) 31, pp. 6-11.
– Eijnde, J. van den ‘Symfonie voor solisten. Ontwerponderwijs aan de afdeling Vormgeving in metaal & kunststoffen van de Academie voor Beeldende Kunsten in Arnhem tijdens het docentschap van Gijs Bakker 1970-1978’, Arnhem (Gemeentemuseum) 1994.
– Reinewald, C. ‘Gijs Bakker en oud-studenten over hun academietijd in Arnhem’, Items 13 (1994) 1, pp. 38-44.